Supply chain management Definitions

  • #

    3PL (third-party logistics)

    A 3PL (third-party logistics) provider offers outsourced logistics services, which encompass anything that involves management of one or more facets of procurement and fulfillment activities.

  • A

    ABC classification

    ABC classification is a ranking system for identifying and grouping items in terms of how useful they are for achieving business goals.

  • advanced shipping notice (ASN)

    Advanced shipping notice (ASN) is a document that provides detailed information about a pending delivery. The purpose of an ASN is to notify the customer when shipping will occur and provide physical characteristics about the shipment so the customer can be prepared to accept delivery.  

  • asset performance management (APM)

    Asset performance management (APM) is both a strategy and a set of software tools for tracking and managing the health of an organization's physical assets.

  • Automatic Identification and Data Capture (AIDC)

    Automatic Identification and Data Capture (AIDC) is a broad set of technologies used to collect information from an object, image or sound without manual data entry. The actual technologies involved, the information obtained and the purpose of collection vary widely. AIDC systems are used to manage inventory, delivery, assets, security and documents.

  • B

    bar code (or barcode)

    A bar code (often seen as a single word, barcode) is the small image of lines (bars) and spaces that is affixed to retail store items, identification cards, and postal mail to identify a particular product number, person, or location.

  • bill of materials (BOM)

    A bill of materials (BOM) is a comprehensive inventory of the raw materials, assemblies, subassemblies, parts and components, as well as the quantities of each, needed to manufacture a product.

  • bullwhip effect

    The bullwhip effect is the magnification of demand distortion as it moves upstream in the supply chain from customer through to the manufacturing process.

  • C

    closed loop manufacturing resource planning (MRP)

    Closed loop manufacturing resource planning, also known as closed loop MRP (CLMRP), is a manufacturing resource planning model that includes returned products in the supply chain.

  • computer numerical control (CNC)

    Computer numerical control (CNC) is a method for automating machine tools through software embedded in an attached microcomputer. CNC is commonly used for manufacturing metal and plastic parts.

  • cross-docking

    Cross-docking is the practice of unloading goods from inbound delivery vehicles and loading them directly onto outbound vehicles.

  • D

    Demand Planning

    Demand planning is the process of forecasting the demand for a product or service so it can be produced and delivered more efficiently and to the satisfaction of customers.

  • Demand signal repository (DSR)

    Demand signal repository (DSR) is a database that aggregates sales data at the point of sale (POS). DSR systems capture, clean and harmonize large data sets so the data can be queried.

  • digital supply chain

    A digital supply chain is a supply chain whose foundation is built on Web-enabled capabilities to fully capitalize on connectivity, system integration and the information-producing capabilities of "smart" connected products.

  • distribution requirements planning (DRP)

    Distribution requirements planning (DRP) is a time-based systematic process to make the delivery of goods more efficient by determining which goods, in what quantities, and at what location are required to meet anticipated demand.

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